ACSR | Associação Central Sul-Rio-Grandense


She Matters: Women in Kazakhstan Corporate Leadership

Therefore, in the fight against old marriage attitudes, they skillfully used various forms of agitation and propaganda. I think this period was too early to talk about women’s struggle for their rights, since the Russian Empire did not fundamentally change the economic way of life of the Kazakhs. Yes, because of the withdrawal of Kazakh […]

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Therefore, in the fight against old marriage attitudes, they skillfully used various forms of agitation and propaganda. I think this period was too early to talk about women’s struggle for their rights, since the Russian Empire did not fundamentally change the economic way of life of the Kazakhs. Yes, because of the withdrawal of Kazakh lands for the resettlement fund, pasture lands had been reduced and nomadic routes had broken down. But the Russian Empire did not break the traditional economic structure based on seasonal migrations. Forced settlement and the destruction of nomadic production occurred only in the 1930s. Therefore, in the conditions of nomadic reproduction, it was impossible for anyone to survive outside the community, especially a woman. All decisions regarding nomadic routes, conflict resolution, and relationships with neighboring tribes were made by men, with the eldest in the family enjoying the greatest rights.

Kazakhstan actively participates in the work of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, which reviews the implementation of international standards to protect and promote women's rights. Thus, the answer to your question would be that Soviet/Communist women had a degree of education, economic independence, and legal status that their Western counterparts only received much later. There is a chapter in my book about the extent to which the Soviet project was reflected in the lives of specific women.

Cases were primarily collected by visiting Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum, Aksai Kazakh National Museum, and Capital Museum. There are several Chinese museums that house ethnic costumes, like the Shanghai Museum, Ethnic Museum, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum, Xinjiang Aksai Kazakh National Museum, and the Capital Museum. But the latter three have the largest number of Kazakh costumes, more than 150 pieces, so they were selected for the case study visits. Secondary data were extracted from books related to domestic and Chinese minorities' clothing history and the Internet.

  • While years ago it was common for women to marry very young, times have changed; education has become much more important for both genders, and marriages for people in their mid-twenties are becoming more common.
  • While work and utilitarianism had definite effects on Kazakhstan's architecture, so did the belief in unity and the rights of the people.
  • Kazakhs drink their tea in small wide-mouthed saucers called kasirs that they never fill more than halfway .
  • Liberal arts schools, many run by foreigners, are opening in the bigger cities.

To some extent, oral histories and interviews with descendants can fill this gap, but this will be the subject of other studies. In this book, I addressed only a small part of the works of Soviet Kazakh authors of the pre-war period. On the one hand, Kazakh authors followed the state’s orders. Upon coming to power, the Bolsheviks began to fight the old customs in the sphere of family and marriage relations by adopting a number of legislative acts. By the mid-1920s, the Bolsheviks had established legal liability for forced marriage , for bigamy and polygamy , and for marriage with underage individuals, abduction, and amengerism .

Interview with Dr. Kairat Kelimbetov, Governor of the Astana International Financial Centre

This picture is further complicated and contrasted by the introduction of new buildings and new wealth by some people in Kazakhstan. The yurt is the main architectural remnant from the Kazakh nomadic years. The yurt is a round, transportable dwelling not unlike the Native American tepee .

According to UNAIDS experts, only in Almaty with the population of 1.5 mln., there are about 30,000 people involved into commercial sex business. Medical examinations of this population group have revealed about 70 % of STI cases. This phenomenon is not only conducive to distribution of the HIV infection, but also negatively influences women’s status and situation in society, aggravating the already clearly expressed stereotypes about their subordination. Rooted in the landscape and cultures of Central Asia, these works are neither provincial nor exotic; they connect into the world and echo global history. Conversely, westerners’ baffling ignorance of their own literature and their marked oversensitivity to routine Kafkaesque scenarios will be familiar to residents of post-Soviet regions. Historically Kazakh Nomads were pagans, the main religion was Tengri - the sky and Umai - mother earth. In 13th century the south park of Kazakhstan partly was influenced by Islam.

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Kazakh folklore has preserved the details of a famous singing contest that took place around 1870 between Birzhan-sal, a renowned male bard, and a talented young female bard named Sara Tastanbekova. Birzhan-sal won the contest, but in taking on the famous singer and composer, Sara gained her own honored place in Kazakh music history. Her courageous example encouraged younger generations of Kazakh women to perform lyrical songs. These narratives, along with instrumental pieces whose wordless melodies and rhythms relate beloved stories through a kind of musical onomatopoeia, all reflect a nomadic sensibility. Traditional nomadic religion ascribes spiritual power to a range of natural phenomena and living creatures, and nomadic music and sound-making often serve as a means of representing and accessing the power of spirits. Indeed, while Islam spread relatively easily to the sedentary parts of Central Asia, the nomadic population often resisted adopting it, thus preserving elements of more ancient beliefs related to shamanism , ancestor worship, and animism . Soviet women almost immediately received the right to divorce, the right to carry their name after marriage, the right to abortion, and the right to have custody of their children after divorce.

Also a product of their formally nomadic lives is the yurt, a Central Asian dwelling resembling a tepee, which was transportable and utilitarian on the harsh Central Asian steppe. These small white homes are still found in some parts of Kazakhstan, but for the most part they are used in celebrations and for murals and tourist crafts. All 30 Kazakh women's footwear was found to be boots, which seems practical given the need to keep the feet warm from the cold due to the cold climatic conditions in the region. The upturned shoe mouth of women's boots in Kazakh is very common, as in Figure 12. The shape of the upturned shoe mouth can be regarded as a manifestation of the ethics and morality principle “walk the right way with integrity in heart” at the core of Chinese civilization. The shape of the shoe's mouth, heel, and upper edges are similar to the women's boots in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and other Central Asian regions as seen in Figure 13. Clearly, the women's boots in Kazakh were more or less influenced by the shoe culture in Central Asian cultures along the Silk Road .

Democracy is attempting to take root in a land that hasn't known democracy at any time in its three thousand-year history. Nomadism, tribal warfare, Mongol dynasties, foreign domination, and Soviet communism have been all the Kazakh land has known.

The STI incidence rate is an important parameter of the incidence of the sexual behaviour connected with the HIV infection risk. According to the results of the sociological research carried out among the university students of Almaty – the largest city of the republic, up to 30 % of the respondents have had sexually transmitted infections . Local state governance is performed by representative bodies of power – maslikhats elected by the population, and by executive bodies headed by akims nominated by the President. Browse 3,462 professional kazakh women stock photos, images & pictures available royalty-free.